欧盟自动驾驶法规简述

2020-02-03 20:42:11·  来源:車标典  
 
自动驾驶技术方兴未艾,各国和各大公司都在此领域压上重金,以期能够引领自动驾驶技术的发展方向。欧盟也概莫能例外。据统计,欧盟每年在自动驾驶技术上面的研发
自动驾驶技术方兴未艾,各国和各大公司都在此领域压上重金,以期能够引领自动驾驶技术的发展方向。欧盟也概莫能例外。
据统计,欧盟每年在自动驾驶技术上面的研发投入超过57亿欧元,占整个欧盟全年研发投入的28%,已经成为欧盟研发投入最多的领域了。
欧盟认为自动驾驶技术的成熟和广泛应用取决于下列4个方面:

安全性
车辆与数字基础设施之间,以及车与车之间安全,可靠和可信赖的通信;

用户采纳
更多用户使用具备自动驾驶能力的车辆或功能,同时整个社会(包括其他道路用户)都能够接受这些功能和车辆;

AI
人工智能可以在复杂的交通环境中实现安全的自动驾驶。它还在智能移动服务中起着重要作用;

测试
在开阔道路上对自动驾驶系统进行大规模测试和验证对于进一步开发和部署至关重要。
在以上四个方面,欧盟和UNECE制订了一系列的法律和法规来规范和引导,本文就整理了目前欧盟和UNECE颁布或草拟的各项相关法规:

1. 技术法规:
a) 自动驾驶车辆框架文件(L3及以上)a);
framework document on automated/autonomous vehicles (Proposal)
a: 此文件由欧盟、中国、日本和美国共同领导完成;
b) ALKS技术要求;
Uniform provisions concerning the approval of vehicles with regard to automated lane keeping system (Proposal)
c) AEBS :
R131: Advanced Emergency Braking Systems (AEBS)
R152: Advanced Emergency Braking Systems for M1 and N1 vehicles (Proposal)
d) 制动和转向:
R13H: Uniform provisions concerning the approval of passenger cars with regard to braking;
R13: Uniform provisions concerning the approval of vehicles of categories M, N and O with regard to braking;
R79: Uniform provisions concerning the approval of vehicles with regard to steering equipment; (Proposal for new amend)
R139: Uniform provisions concerning the approval of passenger cars with regard to Brake Assist Systems (BAS);
R140: Uniform provisions concerning the approval of passenger cars with regard to Electronic Stability Control (ESC) Systems;
e) 盲点监测:
R151: Uniform provisions concerning the approval of vehicles with regard to blind Spot Information Systems (BISIS);
f) eCall:
R144: Accident Emergency Call Systems (AECS)

2. 网络安全:
The approval of vehicles with regard to cyber security and of cybersecurity management systems (Proposal)

3. 软件更新:
The approval of vehicles with regard to software update processes and of software update management systems (Proposal)

4. 责任认定和事故重现:
a) Data storage system for automated driving (DSSAD) Requirements for Draft ALKS Regulation; (Proposal)
b) Event Data Recorder (EDR) Performance Elements Appropriate for Adoption in 1958 and 1998 Agreement Resolutions or Regulations (Proposal)

5. 豁免指南
Guidelines on the exemption procedure for the EU approval of automated vehicles.

6. 道路安全
Road traffic safety resolution on the deployment of highly and fully automated vehicles in road traffic.

7. 交通法规
a) convention on road traffic (Vienna on 8 November 1968);
b) Convention on road traffic (Geneva on 19 September 1949).

8. 基础设施
a) (EC) 1071/2009 - common rules concerning the conditions to be complied with to pursue the occupation of road transport operator;
b) 2008/96/EC - road infrastructure safety management;
c) Resolution on road signs and signals;

9. 定期检查
a) 2014/45/EU - periodic roadworthiness tests for motor vehicles and their trailers;
b) 1997 agreement: uniform conditions for periodical technical inspections of wheeled vehicles and the reciprocal recognition of such inspections;

10. 其它
a) (EU) 561/2006 - social legislation relating to road transport;
b) (EU) 165/2014 - tachographs in road transport

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